Better Migration Management

The scale and nature of migration and displacement calls for cross-border solutions. The Khartoum Process is a regional dialogue on migration between the EU and countries of origin, transit and destination in the wider Horn of Africa region, with an initial focus on addressing trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. Most countries within the Khartoum Process region are places of origin, transit and destination for migrants and displaced people.

The Better Migration Management (BMM) programme is a regional, multi-year, multi-partner programme co-funded by the European Union Trust Fund for Africa and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ , and coordinated by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is one of the main implementing partner along with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC), Expertise France, Italian State Police, CIVIPOL and the British Council. It was designed and is being implemented in close collaboration with the African Union Commission and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).The overall objective is to improve migration management in the region, and in particular to address the trafficking and smuggling of migrants within and from the Horn of Africa.

It is financed by the European Union Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (Horn of Africa Window) with EUR 40 Mio and by the BMZ with EUR 6 Mio. IOM implements the BMM programme in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda.


  • BMM is built upon a comprehensive and holistic approach towards migration management and an understanding of the potentially positive contribution of orderly migration and its impact on regional development and stability.
  • The design and implementation of all actions follows a context and conflict sensitive approach.
  • Implementation is in full observance of all international laws and conventions. All activities follow a rights-based approach to prevent the criminalisation of irregular migrants and is conducted in full respect for the rights of migrants and specific needs of vulnerable groups such as children, women, the elderly, victims of trafficking and smuggled migrants by mainstreaming human rights considerations and gender issues into all programme activities.
  • BMM is a programme in the region for the region. Its success depends on full ownership by and strong partnership with the participating countries as well with established supra-national actors and structures.
  • BMM follows a regional approach to foster greater coordination among participating countries and between relevant regional organisations or consultative mechanisms.
  • BMM is a comprehensive response through which the EU supports countries of the Khartoum Process in migration management. The programme  strives towards complementarity with other support programmes and with the various political dialogues, while promoting regional initiatives towards greater policy coherence and for enhanced legal channels for migration.

Key stakeholders for this programme include: Government ministries; judicial sector; police; border management; individuals affected by trafficking and smuggling; communities; civil society; media; and the general public.

The expected results are: (I) National legislation developed in coherence with international standards; (II) Enhanced capacity of beneficiary countries to manage migration effectively, which include identification and assistance to persons in need; investigation and prosecution of cases of trafficking and smuggling of migrants; training on migrant’s rights; improved data collection and information sharing; as well as providing border management offices with adequate equipment.

(III) Improved access to justice and to protection facilities for irregular migrants, prospective migrants, and for victims of trafficking; improved and new possibilities for returnees and reintegrated persons. (IV) Increased awareness of the risks associated with irregular migration as well as providing alternative options for regular migration trough state and non-state actors and the general public.( Link to IOM Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti on protection especially on MRC).

Steering and implementation
As mandated by the Operational Committee of the European Trust Fund, strategic steering is assured by a steering committee, chaired by the European Commission with representatives of those European member states directly involved in the steering of the Khartoum Process: France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK).