Mixed migration in the region is generally tracked through two flow monitoring tools. First, the Flow Monitoring Registry (FMR), aimed at capturing quantitative data about certain characteristics such as the volume of migrants, nationalities, sex and age disaggregated information, origin, planned destination and key vulnerabilities. Second, the Flow Monitoring Survey (FMS), aimed at capturing qualitative information about the profiles of migrants, migration drivers and migrants’ needs. Both are collected by enumerators at Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs). The FMR is a group level data collection exercise, while the FMS is done through interviews with a sample of migrants passing through the FMPs.
Migration in the East and Horn of Africa region has been broadly categorized in four main networks:
- Migration Routes: Categorized as longer-term movement, migration along the four main routes (Eastern, Horn of Africa, Northern, and Southern) is mostly intended for relatively longer durations and may encompass border crossings of more than one country. Flow monitoring points in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia and Yemen are categorized as points that measure this kind of movement.
Health Vulnerability Monitoring Network: Various points established in key locations in Burundi, South Sudan and Uganda (as well as the Democratic Republic of the Congo), provide valuable information on movements to and from areas affected by the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), although they operate under the standard Flow Monitoring methodology.
- South Sudan Situation Cross-border Movements: FMPs established mainly in South Sudan (at the border with Sudan), track this kind of movement, which is usually shorter-term in nature, and limited to these two countries. Various points are also operational within the country, to track internal movements at key transit hubs, such as bus stations and markets.
- Movements between Burundi and United Republic of Tanzania Network: Following the conflict in Burundi, many Burundian refugees are currently making their way back from the United Republic of Tanzania. Eight FMPs established along the border between these two countries track the returns of this population, as well as other kinds of movements between the two countries.